Being Factual

Just The Facts Ma'am, Just the Facts

Sponsors

Slavery in the North Compared to the South

Slavery in the North compared to the South

Slavery in the North compared to the South

 

Slavery in the North Compared to the South

As you can tell, this image makes the claims about slavery,  that the North (in the terms of the Civil War Era, the “North” referred to non-slave states) having more slaves than the South (again, in Civil War terms, slave holding states) At the time of the Civil War you also had the Border States which were slave holding states that chose not to secede from the Union (either by vote, or by force) they were considered southern states because of the above mentioned terms. Obviously, when you compare them in Civil War Era terminology, this whole meme is self defeating.

Summary:

Slavery was never as big in the North as in the South, from the 1790 Census until the 1860 Census

I’m a History nerd, I love History, and with all of the talk about the Confederacy lately due to some mentally ill guy shooting people while taking pictures of himself with the Confederate Battle Flag, there has been a lot of misinformation about the flags, the Civil War, and slavery. So as part of my Civil War series, which started with my post about the History of the Confederate Flags I’m going to make my second article about this myth, which I have seen a lot of people claiming on Social Media.

Namecheap.com

By 1804 all northern states had passed laws at least gradually abolishing slavery, which you can see evidence of with the number of slaves declining in the northern states over each Census Report. Prior to the Civil War and Abolition of Slavery in 1865, one northern state (NJ with 18) and one Territory that supported the North in the War (Nebraska with 15) were the last 35 slaves in the North.

But, this meme also doesn’t specify, even though historical terminology makes the assumption, that it means civil war era. The US Census started in 1790, and Slavery was abolished in between the 1860 and 1870 Census, so you can only compare every ten year census ranging from 1790, until 1860, just before the start of the war.

All Census data used here is taken from the University of Virginia Historical Census Browser [1] which gets it’s data from the original US Census Reports.

1790 Census

In 1790, there were 13 States and three territories, the Slave Population of each state is listed below along with the total population. New York, New Jersey, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, were considered the North, and North and South Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware were considered the South:

1790 Total Slaves
CONNECTICUT 2,648
DELAWARE 8,887
GEORGIA 29,264
KENTUCKY (territory) 12,430
MAINE (territory) 0
MARYLAND 103,036
MASSACHUSETTS 0
NEW HAMPSHIRE 157
NEW JERSEY 11,423
NEW YORK 21,193
NORTH CAROLINA 100,783
PENNSYLVANIA 3,707
RHODE ISLAND 958
SOUTH CAROLINA 107,094
VERMONT (territory) 0
VIRGINIA 292,627
 US Total 694,207
North South
39,128 654,121

 

1800 Census

The only changes from the 1790 to the 1800 Census was that Kentucky and Vermont are now states, and Tennessee has joined the South.

1800 Total Slaves
CONNECTICUT 951
DELAWARE 6,153
GEORGIA 59,699
KENTUCKY 40,343
MAINE (territory) 0
MARYLAND 105,635
MASSACHUSETTS 0
NEW HAMPSHIRE 8
NEW JERSEY 12,422
NEW YORK 20,613
NORTH CAROLINA 133,296
PENNSYLVANIA 1,706
RHODE ISLAND 380
SOUTH CAROLINA 146,151
TENNESSEE 13,584
VERMONT 0
VIRGINIA 346,671
US Total 887,612
North South
36,080 851,532

1810 Census

Between the last two Census reports, Ohio has joined the union as a free northern state.

 

1810 Total Slaves
CONNECTICUT 310
DELAWARE 4,177
GEORGIA 105,218
KENTUCKY 80,561
MAINE (territory) 0
MARYLAND 111,502
MASSACHUSETTS 0
NEW HAMPSHIRE 0
NEW JERSEY 10,851
NEW YORK 15,017
NORTH CAROLINA 168,824
OHIO 0
PENNSYLVANIA 795
RHODE ISLAND 108
SOUTH CAROLINA 196,365
TENNESSEE 44,535
VERMONT 0
VIRGINIA 392,518
US Total 1130781
North South
27,081 1,103,700

 

1820 Census

Between the last two Census Reports Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri (a territory still) have joined the South, and Illinois and Indiana have joined the North.

1820 Total Slaves
ALABAMA 47,449
CONNECTICUT 97
DELAWARE 4,509
GEORGIA 149,656
ILLINOIS 917
INDIANA 190
KENTUCKY 126,732
LOUISIANA 69,064
MAINE 0
MARYLAND 107,398
MASSACHUSETTS 0
MISSISSIPPI 32,814
MISSOURI (territory) 10,222
NEW HAMPSHIRE 0
NEW JERSEY 7,557
NEW YORK 10,088
NORTH CAROLINA 205,017
OHIO 0
PENNSYLVANIA 211
RHODE ISLAND 48
SOUTH CAROLINA 251,783
TENNESSEE 80,107
VERMONT 0
VIRGINIA 425,153
 US Total 1,529,012
North South
19,108 1,509,904

1830 Census

From the 1820, until the 1830 Census we have Arkansas and Michigan becoming territories, and Missouri and Maine are now states as part of the 1820 Compromise

1830 Total Slaves
ALABAMA 117,549
ARKANSAS (territory) 4,576
CONNECTICUT 25
DELAWARE 3,292
GEORGIA 217,531
ILLINOIS 747
INDIANA 3
KENTUCKY 165,213
LOUISIANA 109,588
MAINE 2
MARYLAND 102,994
MASSACHUSETTS 1
MICHIGAN (territory) 32
MISSISSIPPI 65,659
MISSOURI 25,096
NEW HAMPSHIRE 3
NEW JERSEY 2,254
NEW YORK 75
NORTH CAROLINA 245,601
OHIO 6
PENNSYLVANIA 403
RHODE ISLAND 17
SOUTH CAROLINA 315,401
TENNESSEE 141,603
VERMONT 0
VIRGINIA 469,757
 US Total 1,987,428
North South
3,568 1,983,860

 

1840 Census

From 1830 to 1840 we added Florida, Iowa, and Wisconsin as Territories.

1840 Total Slaves
ALABAMA 253,532
ARKANSAS 19,935
CONNECTICUT 54
DELAWARE 2,605
FLORIDA (territory) 25,717
GEORGIA 280,944
ILLINOIS 331
INDIANA 3
IOWA (territory) 16
KENTUCKY 182,258
LOUISIANA 168,452
MAINE 0
MARYLAND 89,737
MASSACHUSETTS 0
MICHIGAN 0
MISSISSIPPI 195,211
MISSOURI 58,240
NEW HAMPSHIRE 1
NEW JERSEY 674
NEW YORK 4
NORTH CAROLINA 245,817
OHIO 3
PENNSYLVANIA 64
RHODE ISLAND 5
SOUTH CAROLINA 327,038
TENNESSEE 183,059
VERMONT 0
VIRGINIA 449,087
WISCONSIN (territory) 11
 US Total 2,482,798
North South
1155 2,481,643

 

1850 Census

 

From 1840 until 1850 Minnesota joined as a territory and California joined as a northern state, and Texas joined as a southern state,  Florida, Iowa, and Wisconsin are now states.

1850 Total Slaves
ALABAMA 342,844
ARKANSAS 47,100
CALIFORNIA 0
CONNECTICUT 0
DELAWARE 2,290
FLORIDA 39,310
GEORGIA 381,682
ILLINOIS 0
INDIANA 0
IOWA 0
KENTUCKY 210,981
LOUISIANA 244,809
MAINE 0
MARYLAND 90,368
MASSACHUSETTS 0
MICHIGAN 0
MINNESOTA (territory) 0
MISSISSIPPI 309,878
MISSOURI 87,422
NEW HAMPSHIRE 0
NEW JERSEY 236
NEW YORK 0
NORTH CAROLINA 288,548
OHIO 0
PENNSYLVANIA 0
RHODE ISLAND 0
SOUTH CAROLINA 384,984
TENNESSEE 239,459
TEXAS 58,161
VERMONT 0
VIRGINIA 472,528
WISCONSIN 0
 US Total 3,200,600
 
North South
236 3,200,364

 

1860 Census

From 1850 until 1860 Kansas, Nevada, and Nebraska joined as territories, Minnesota became a state, and Oregon joined as a state.

1860 Total Slaves
ALABAMA 435,080
ARKANSAS 111,115
CALIFORNIA 0
CONNECTICUT 0
DELAWARE 1,798
FLORIDA 61,745
GEORGIA 462,198
ILLINOIS 0
INDIANA 0
IOWA 0
KANSAS (territory) 2
KENTUCKY 225,483
LOUISIANA 331,726
MAINE 0
MARYLAND 87,189
MASSACHUSETTS 0
MICHIGAN 0
MINNESOTA 0
MISSISSIPPI 436,631
MISSOURI 114,931
NEBRASKA (territory) 15
NEVADA (territory) 0
NEW HAMPSHIRE 0
NEW JERSEY 18
NEW YORK 0
NORTH CAROLINA 331,059
OHIO 0
OREGON 0
PENNSYLVANIA 0
RHODE ISLAND 0
SOUTH CAROLINA 402,406
TENNESSEE 275,719
TEXAS 182,566
VERMONT 0
VIRGINIA 490,865
WISCONSIN 0
 US Total 3,950,546
North South
35 3,950,511

 

References

[1] University of Virginia Library – Historical Census Browser


Sponsored Reading


See larger image

Additional Images:

Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920


By (author): William Thorndale, William Dollarhide

The county has always been used as the basic Federal census unit. Genealogical research in the census, therefore, begins with identifying the correct county jurisdictions. This work shows all U.S. county boundaries from 1790 to 1920. On each of the nearly 400 maps the old county lines are superimposed over the modern ones to highlight the boundary changes at ten-year intervals. Also included are (1) a history of census growth; (2) the technical facts about each census; (3) a discussion of census accuracy; (4) an essay on available sources for each state’s old county lines; and (5) a statement with each map indicating which county census lines exist and which are lost. Then there is an index listing all present-day counties, plus nearly all defunct counties or counties later re-named. With each map there is data on boundary changes, notes about the census, and locality finding keys. There also are inset maps that clarify territorial lines, a state-by-state bibliography of sources, and an appendix outlining pitfalls in mapping county boundaries. The detail in this work is exhaustive and of such impeccable standards that there is little wonder why this award-winning publication is the number one tool in U.S. census research.
List Price: $59.95 USD
New From: $55.95 USD In Stock

Updated: October 11, 2016 — 10:59 pm
Being Factual © 2016
web stats