Being Factual

Just The Facts Ma'am, Just the Facts

Sponsors

Slavery in the North Compared to the South

Summary:

Slavery was never as big in the North as in the South, from the 1790 Census until the 1860 Census

Slavery in the North compared to the South

Slavery in the North compared to the South

 

Slavery in the North Compared to the South

As you can tell, this image makes the claims about slavery,  that the North (in the terms of the Civil War Era, the “North” referred to non-slave states) having more slaves than the South (again, in Civil War terms, slave holding states) At the time of the Civil War you also had the Border States which were slave holding states that chose not to secede from the Union (either by vote, or by force) they were considered southern states because of the above mentioned terms. Obviously, when you compare them in Civil War Era terminology, this whole meme is self defeating.

I’m a History nerd, I love History, and with all of the talk about the Confederacy lately due to some mentally ill guy shooting people while taking pictures of himself with the Confederate Battle Flag, there has been a lot of misinformation about the flags, the Civil War, and slavery. So as part of my Civil War series, which started with my post about the History of the Confederate Flags I’m going to make my second article about this myth, which I have seen a lot of people claiming on Social Media.

By 1804 all northern states had passed laws at least gradually abolishing slavery, which you can see evidence of with the number of slaves declining in the northern states over each Census Report. Prior to the Civil War and Abolition of Slavery in 1865, one northern state (NJ with 18) and two Territories that supported the North in the War (Nebraska with 15 and Kansas with 2) were the last 35 slaves in the North.

But, this meme also doesn’t specify, even though historical terminology makes the assumption, that it means civil war era. The US Census started in 1790, and Slavery was abolished in between the 1860 and 1870 Census, so you can only compare every ten year census ranging from 1790, until 1860, just before the start of the war.

All Census data used here is taken from the University of Virginia Historical Census Browser [1] which gets it’s data from the original US Census Reports.

1790 Census

In 1790, there were 13 States and three territories, the Slave Population of each state is listed below along with the total population. New York, New Jersey, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, were considered the North, and North and South Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware were considered the South:

1790Total Slaves
CONNECTICUT2,648
DELAWARE8,887
GEORGIA29,264
KENTUCKY (territory)12,430
MAINE (territory)0
MARYLAND103,036
MASSACHUSETTS0
NEW HAMPSHIRE157
NEW JERSEY11,423
NEW YORK21,193
NORTH CAROLINA100,783
PENNSYLVANIA3,707
RHODE ISLAND958
SOUTH CAROLINA107,094
VERMONT (territory)0
VIRGINIA292,627
 US Total694,207
NorthSouth
39,128654,121

 

1800 Census

The only changes from the 1790 to the 1800 Census was that Kentucky and Vermont are now states, and Tennessee has joined the South.

1800Total Slaves
CONNECTICUT951
DELAWARE6,153
GEORGIA59,699
KENTUCKY40,343
MAINE (territory)0
MARYLAND105,635
MASSACHUSETTS0
NEW HAMPSHIRE8
NEW JERSEY12,422
NEW YORK20,613
NORTH CAROLINA133,296
PENNSYLVANIA1,706
RHODE ISLAND380
SOUTH CAROLINA146,151
TENNESSEE13,584
VERMONT0
VIRGINIA346,671
US Total887,612
NorthSouth
36,080851,532

1810 Census

Between the last two Census reports, Ohio has joined the union as a free northern state.

 

1810Total Slaves
CONNECTICUT310
DELAWARE4,177
GEORGIA105,218
KENTUCKY80,561
MAINE (territory)0
MARYLAND111,502
MASSACHUSETTS0
NEW HAMPSHIRE0
NEW JERSEY10,851
NEW YORK15,017
NORTH CAROLINA168,824
OHIO0
PENNSYLVANIA795
RHODE ISLAND108
SOUTH CAROLINA196,365
TENNESSEE44,535
VERMONT0
VIRGINIA392,518
US Total1130781
NorthSouth
27,0811,103,700

 

1820 Census

Between the last two Census Reports Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri (a territory still) have joined the South, and Illinois and Indiana have joined the North.

1820Total Slaves
ALABAMA47,449
CONNECTICUT97
DELAWARE4,509
GEORGIA149,656
ILLINOIS917
INDIANA190
KENTUCKY126,732
LOUISIANA69,064
MAINE0
MARYLAND107,398
MASSACHUSETTS0
MISSISSIPPI32,814
MISSOURI (territory)10,222
NEW HAMPSHIRE0
NEW JERSEY7,557
NEW YORK10,088
NORTH CAROLINA205,017
OHIO0
PENNSYLVANIA211
RHODE ISLAND48
SOUTH CAROLINA251,783
TENNESSEE80,107
VERMONT0
VIRGINIA425,153
 US Total1,529,012
NorthSouth
19,1081,509,904

1830 Census

From the 1820, until the 1830 Census we have Arkansas and Michigan becoming territories, and Missouri and Maine are now states as part of the 1820 Compromise

1830Total Slaves
ALABAMA117,549
ARKANSAS (territory)4,576
CONNECTICUT25
DELAWARE3,292
GEORGIA217,531
ILLINOIS747
INDIANA3
KENTUCKY165,213
LOUISIANA109,588
MAINE2
MARYLAND102,994
MASSACHUSETTS1
MICHIGAN (territory)32
MISSISSIPPI65,659
MISSOURI25,096
NEW HAMPSHIRE3
NEW JERSEY2,254
NEW YORK75
NORTH CAROLINA245,601
OHIO6
PENNSYLVANIA403
RHODE ISLAND17
SOUTH CAROLINA315,401
TENNESSEE141,603
VERMONT0
VIRGINIA469,757
 US Total1,987,428
NorthSouth
3,5681,983,860

 

1840 Census

From 1830 to 1840 we added Florida, Iowa, and Wisconsin as Territories.

1840Total Slaves
ALABAMA253,532
ARKANSAS19,935
CONNECTICUT54
DELAWARE2,605
FLORIDA (territory)25,717
GEORGIA280,944
ILLINOIS331
INDIANA3
IOWA (territory)16
KENTUCKY182,258
LOUISIANA168,452
MAINE0
MARYLAND89,737
MASSACHUSETTS0
MICHIGAN0
MISSISSIPPI195,211
MISSOURI58,240
NEW HAMPSHIRE1
NEW JERSEY674
NEW YORK4
NORTH CAROLINA245,817
OHIO3
PENNSYLVANIA64
RHODE ISLAND5
SOUTH CAROLINA327,038
TENNESSEE183,059
VERMONT0
VIRGINIA449,087
WISCONSIN (territory)11
 US Total2,482,798
NorthSouth
11552,481,643

 

1850 Census

 

From 1840 until 1850 Minnesota joined as a territory and California joined as a northern state, and Texas joined as a southern state,  Florida, Iowa, and Wisconsin are now states.

1850Total Slaves
ALABAMA342,844
ARKANSAS47,100
CALIFORNIA0
CONNECTICUT0
DELAWARE2,290
FLORIDA39,310
GEORGIA381,682
ILLINOIS0
INDIANA0
IOWA0
KENTUCKY210,981
LOUISIANA244,809
MAINE0
MARYLAND90,368
MASSACHUSETTS0
MICHIGAN0
MINNESOTA (territory)0
MISSISSIPPI309,878
MISSOURI87,422
NEW HAMPSHIRE0
NEW JERSEY236
NEW YORK0
NORTH CAROLINA288,548
OHIO0
PENNSYLVANIA0
RHODE ISLAND0
SOUTH CAROLINA384,984
TENNESSEE239,459
TEXAS58,161
VERMONT0
VIRGINIA472,528
WISCONSIN0
 US Total3,200,600
 
NorthSouth
2363,200,364

 

1860 Census

From 1850 until 1860 Kansas, Nevada, and Nebraska joined as territories, Minnesota became a state, and Oregon joined as a state.

1860Total Slaves
ALABAMA435,080
ARKANSAS111,115
CALIFORNIA0
CONNECTICUT0
DELAWARE1,798
FLORIDA61,745
GEORGIA462,198
ILLINOIS0
INDIANA0
IOWA0
KANSAS (territory)2
KENTUCKY225,483
LOUISIANA331,726
MAINE0
MARYLAND87,189
MASSACHUSETTS0
MICHIGAN0
MINNESOTA0
MISSISSIPPI436,631
MISSOURI114,931
NEBRASKA (territory)15
NEVADA (territory)0
NEW HAMPSHIRE0
NEW JERSEY18
NEW YORK0
NORTH CAROLINA331,059
OHIO0
OREGON0
PENNSYLVANIA0
RHODE ISLAND0
SOUTH CAROLINA402,406
TENNESSEE275,719
TEXAS182,566
VERMONT0
VIRGINIA490,865
WISCONSIN0
 US Total3,950,546
NorthSouth
353,950,511

 

References

[1] University of Virginia Library – Historical Census Browser


Sponsored Reading


See larger image

Additional Images:

Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920


By (author): William Thorndale, William Dollarhide

The county has always been used as the basic Federal census unit. Genealogical research in the census, therefore, begins with identifying the correct county jurisdictions. This work shows all U.S. county boundaries from 1790 to 1920. On each of the nearly 400 maps the old county lines are superimposed over the modern ones to highlight the boundary changes at ten-year intervals. Also included are (1) a history of census growth; (2) the technical facts about each census; (3) a discussion of census accuracy; (4) an essay on available sources for each state’s old county lines; and (5) a statement with each map indicating which county census lines exist and which are lost. Then there is an index listing all present-day counties, plus nearly all defunct counties or counties later re-named. With each map there is data on boundary changes, notes about the census, and locality finding keys. There also are inset maps that clarify territorial lines, a state-by-state bibliography of sources, and an appendix outlining pitfalls in mapping county boundaries. The detail in this work is exhaustive and of such impeccable standards that there is little wonder why this award-winning publication is the number one tool in U.S. census research.
List Price:$59.95 USD
New From:$55.70 USD In Stock

Updated: July 23, 2017 — 8:57 pm

2 Comments

Add a Comment
  1. Maryland is a southern state that’s over 100000 there. I like your ability to add. Makes me question the validity of the whole article. You don’t need to twist facts to prove a point. You would still prove the south had way more slaves.

    1. Not really understanding what you are trying to say, nothing in this article says Maryland isn’t a southern state.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Being Factual © 2016
web stats